Happy 20th birthday to the contour method

Today marks a major milestone in the field of residual stress measurement. The contour method, one of the most useful and advanced residual stress measurement techniques, was first successfully implemented on this date (August 16th) in 1999 by Mike Prime at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The most significant feature of the contour method is its ability to generate detailed two-dimensional residual stress maps like the one shown below. Please join us in wishing the contour method a very happy 20th birthday! Continue reading Happy 20th birthday to the contour method

Additive Manufacturing Benchmark Publication

Hill Engineering recently contributed to a publication related to residual stress measurement in additive manufacturing (AM) test specimens titled, Elastic Residual Strain and Stress Measurements and Corresponding Part Deflections of 3D Additive Manufacturing Builds of IN625 AM‑Bench Artifacts Using Neutron Diffraction, Synchrotron X‑Ray Diffraction, and Contour Method. The work was performed under the NIST AM-Bench program in collaboration with researchers from NIST, Los Alamos National Laboratory, University of California Davis, and Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source. The abstract text is available here along with a link to the publication. Continue reading Additive Manufacturing Benchmark Publication

An Uncertainty Estimator for Slitting Method Residual Stress Measurements Including the Influence of Regularization

This paper describes the development of a new uncertainty estimator for slitting method residual stress measurements. The new uncertainty estimator accounts for uncertainty in the regularization-based smoothing included in the residual stress calculation procedure, which is called regularization uncertainty. The work describes a means to quantify regularization uncertainty and then, in the context of a numerical experiment, compares estimated uncertainty to known errors. The paper further compares a first order uncertainty estimate, established by a repeatability experiment, to the new uncertainty estimator and finds good correlation between the two estimates of precision. Furthermore, the work establishes a procedure for automated determination of the regularization parameter value that minimizes total uncertainty. In summary, the work shows that uncertainty in the regularization parameter is a significant contributor to the total uncertainty in slitting method measurements and that the new uncertainty estimator provides a reasonable estimate of single measurement uncertainty.

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Additive Manufacturing Benchmark Test Series

As a follow-up to our previous post about additive manufacturing (AM) we wanted to highlight some other activities in the additive manufacturing space.

One such activity that Hill Engineering has been involved in is the NIST AM-Bench program. AM-Bench is developing a continuing series of controlled benchmark tests with two initial goals: 1) to allow modelers to test their simulations against rigorous, highly controlled additive manufacturing benchmark test data, and 2) to encourage additive manufacturing practitioners to develop novel mitigation strategies for challenging build scenarios. As part of this program, Hill Engineering has been working in collaboration with UC Davis to support residual stress measurement activities using the contour method. Continue reading Additive Manufacturing Benchmark Test Series

Residual stress in additive manufacturing

Additive manufacturing (AM) is a manufacturing process that deposits material in a controlled manner to build three-dimensional part geometry (bit by bit). This is in contrast to traditional manufacturing processes where material is cut or removed (i.e., subtracted) from the raw stock to create the intended part shape. The potential for additive manufacturing to significantly improve the economics and performance of manufactured parts for certain applications has made it a popular topic. However, since most additive manufacturing processes are highly thermal (e.g., material is deposited in a melted form and solidifies into the desired shape) significant residual stresses can develop. Hill Engineering has been working with many collaborators to better understand the influence of these processes on residual stress. Continue reading Residual stress in additive manufacturing

Residual stress measurement techniques

Residual stresses exist in most materials and structures. Processes like forging, rolling, extruding, quenching, additive manufacturing, machining, and welding can cause residual stresses to develop. These stresses can influence the way that materials perform (e.g., fatigue, fracture, distortion, and corrosion). There are many different residual stress measurement techniques available to quantify residual stresses. The following are some examples of common measurement techniques. Continue reading Residual stress measurement techniques

The first contour method measurement specimen

Hill Engineering’s new facility in Rancho Cordova, CA features a combination of laboratory, research and development, and office space. Our primary conference room is named in honor of Mike Prime, the inventor of the contour method. The Prime Room stands as a tribute to the creativity, insights, and support that Mike Prime has provided to Hill Engineering over the years. One of our favorite pieces on display in the Prime Room is one half of the specimen that was used for the first successful contour method measurement. Continue reading The first contour method measurement specimen

Ring core

At Hill Engineering we work with residual stress on a daily basis. Ring Core is one of the techniques that we use for residual stress measurement. Ring Core is capable of measuring residual stress over depths spanning the near-surface to bulk regions, and can be applied to quantify the average residual stress over the depth of a drilled core. Ring Core is portable, and can be applied under a variety of circumstances, including in the field. Hill Engineering uses Ring Core measurements to support process development and quality control. Ring Core measurements can be performed in our laboratory or at your site, to your specifications. Continue reading Ring core

Hole Drilling Method for Measuring Residual Stresses

We’d like to share with our loyal followers a new book: Hole Drilling Method for Measuring Residual Stresses, written by Gary S. Schajer and Philip S. Whitehead. As you all know, Hole Drilling measures near-surface residual stress. The Hole Drilling method can be applied to quantify the average residual stress over the depth of a drilled hole (typically 1.0 mm depth). It can also be applied to determine the distribution of residual stress versus depth from the surface to a depth of half the hole diameter. Hole Drilling is portable and is a common method for residual stress measurement that can be applied under a variety of circumstances, including in the field. Continue reading Hole Drilling Method for Measuring Residual Stresses