Near-surface residual stress measurement
X-ray Diffraction is a widely used technique for near-surface residual stress measurements. This method uses the diffraction patterns created by x-rays interacting with the regular atomic lattice to quantify residual stress. The x-ray penetration is relatively shallow in most materials, typically on the order of 0.001 inch (0.025 mm), allowing for the quantification of sharp residual stress gradients. Layer removal is used to measure residual stress at depths beyond the penetration distance.